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LabProtocol Specification v. 0.2

Bioschemas specification describing LabProtocol in the life-science.


The following people have been involved in the creation of this specification document. They are all members of the Laboratory Protocols group.

Group Leader(s)
Other team members


An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas. Experimental protocols are fundamental information structures that support the description of the processes by means of which results are generated in experimental research [1]. Experimental protocols describe how the data were produced, the steps undertaken and conditions under which these steps were carried out.
[1] Giraldo, O., García, A., López, F., & Corcho, O. (2017). Using semantics for representing experimental protocols. Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 8, 52. hierarchy

This is a new Profile that fits into the hierarchy as follows:

Thing > CreativeWork

Key to specification table properties where the Expected Types have been changed, or new (i.e., Bioschemas created) properties/types are green. properties/types are red.

Pending properties/types are blue.

External (i.e., from 3rd party ontology) properties/types are black.

CD = Cardinality

Property Expected Type Description CD Controlled Vocabulary
Marginality: Minimum
instrument Text
Schema: The object that helped the agent perform the action. e.g. John wrote a book with a pen.
Bioschemas: For LabProtocols it would be a laboratory equipment use by a person to follow one or more steps described in this LabProtocol.
Note: Bioschemas have added the following to the list of Expected Types: Text and URL.
keywords Text
Schema: Keywords or tags used to describe this content. Multiple entries in a keywords list are typically delimited by commas. ONE
purpose Text Schema: A goal towards an action is taken. Can be concrete or abstract.
Note: Bioschemas have changed the Expected Types by removing MedicalDevicePurpose and Thing, and adding Text.
ONE SMART Protocols
ChEBI:reagent BioChemEntity
Bioschemas: Reagent used in the protocol. It can be a record in a Dataset describing the reagent or a BioChemEntity corresponding to the reagent or a URL pointing to the type of reagent used. ChEBI and PubChem entities can be used whenever available. Commercial names are also acceptable (URL if possible). MANY ChEBI
rdf:type URL Bioschemas: This is used by validation tools to indentify the profile used. You must use the value specified in the Controlled Vocabulary column. ONE Missing!
sample BioChemEntity
Bioschemas: Sample used in the protocol. It could be a record in a Dataset describing the sample or a physical object corresponding to the sample or a URL pointing to the type of sample used. MANY NCBI Taxonomy
Marginality: Recommended.
citation CreativeWork
Schema: A citation or reference to another creative work, such as another publication, web page, scholarly article, etc. MANY
duration Duration
Schema: The duration of the item (movie, audio recording, event, etc.) in ISO 8601 date format.
Bioschemas: The time it takes to actually carry out the protocol, in ISO 8601 date format.
hasPart CreativeWork
Schema: Indicates a CreativeWork that is (in some sense) a part of this CreativeWork. Inverse property isPartOf.
Bioschemas: A particular case in Bioschemas is LabProtocol where structural elements are used to described advantages (situations the Protocol has been successfully employed), limitations (situations the Protocol would be unreliable or otherwise unsuccessful), applications (Applications of the protocol list the full diversity of the applications of the method and support if is possible to extend the range of applications of the protocol. e.g. northern blot assays, sequencing, etc.), and outcomes (outcome or expected result by a protocol execution).
For LabProtocol, in the applicationType, please use for advantages, for limitations, for applicability, and for outcomes.
MANY SMART Protocols
identifier PropertyValue
Schema: The identifier property represents any kind of identifier for any kind of Thing, such as ISBNs, GTIN codes, UUIDs etc. provides dedicated properties for representing many of these, either as textual strings or as URL (URI) links. See background notes for more details. ONE
isPartOf CreativeWork
Schema: Indicates a CreativeWork that this CreativeWork is (in some sense) part of. MANY
license CreativeWork
Schema: A license document that applies to this content, typically indicated by URL. ONE
software SoftwareApplication
Bioschemas: An application that can complete the request. MANY
step CreativeWork
Schema: A single step item (as HowToStep, text, document, video, etc.) or a HowToSection.
Bioschemas: Use in LabProtocol to include the step by step process followed in this protocol.
Marginality: Optional
additionalType URL Schema: An additional type for the item, typically used for adding more specific types from external vocabularies in microdata syntax. This is a relationship between something and a class that the thing is in. In RDFa syntax, it is better to use the native RDFa syntax - the 'typeof' attribute - for multiple types. tools may have only weaker understanding of extra types, in particular those defined externally.
Bioschemas: Optional for LabProtocol as it has its own type in If used, the recommended URL is experimental protocol as defined by SMART Protocols (see Controlled Vocabulary).
ONE SP:ExperimentalProtocol
isBasedOn CreativeWork
Schema: A resource that was used in the creation of this resource. This term can be repeated for multiple sources. For example,
Note: Bioschemas have removed Product from the Expected Types.

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